*FM 20-3

Field Manual

Headquarters

No. 20-3

Department of the Army

 

Washington, DC, 30 August 1999

 

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. *This publication supersedes FM 20-3, 14 November 1990.

 

Taking Countermeasures

 

Employing Realistic CCD

Minimizing Movement

 

Using Decoys

Avoiding Operational Patterns

 

Applying Recognition Factors

Site Selection

 

CCD Discipline

 

Section II — Techniques and Materials

Techniques

 

Tests and Evaluations

Natural Conditions

 

Data Sources

Materials

 

CHAPTER OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

4   Preparations

 

Battle

 

CHAPTER OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS

5   Preparations

 

Survivability Positions and Obstacles

Battle

 

CHAPTER HIGH-VALUE TARGETS

6   Section I — CCD Planning

Plans

 

Objective

Planning Process

 

Section II — Fixed Installations

Concept

Command Posts

 

Supply and Water Points

Army Aviation Sites

 

Section III — Relocatable Units

Mobility and CCD

Built-In Capabilities

 

CHAPTER SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTS

7   Desert

 

Snow-Covered Areas

Urban Terrain

 

APPENDI   METRIC CONVERSION CHART

 

X A.

 

APPENDI   GUIDELINES FOR TACTICAL STANDING OPERATING

 

X B.   PROCEDURES

Content

 

Commanders’ Responsibilities

Fratricide

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FM 20-3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CAMOUFLAGE,

 

 

 

 

CONCEALMENT, AND

 

 

 

 

 

DECOYS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

PREFACE

 

 

 

CHAPTER

BASICS

1

 

 

Doctrinal Considerations

 

 

 

Responsibilities

 

 

 

Priorities

 

 

 

Training

 

 

 

Other Considerations

CHAPTER

THREAT

2

 

 

Doctrine

 

 

 

Organization

 

 

 

Data Collection

 

 

 

Sensor Systems

 

 

 

CCD Versus Threat Sensors

CHAPTER

FUNDAMENTALS

3

 

 

Section I — Principles

 

 

 

Avoiding Detection

 

 

 

Identifying the Threat

 

 

 

Avoiding Detection by Routine Surveillance

 

APPENDI   INDIVIDUAL CAMOFLAGE, CONCEALMENT, AND

X D.   DECOYS

Materials

 

Discipline

Dispersal

 

Considerations

Employment

 

APPENDI   STANDARD CAMOUFLAUGE MATERIALS

X E.

 

APPENDI   THE GENEVA EMBLEM AND CAMOUFLAGE OF

X F.   MEDICAL FACILITIES

 

GLOSSARY

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

AUTHORIZATION PAGE

 

 

Preface

 

This field manual (FM) is intended to help company-level leaders understand the principles and techniques of camouflage, concealment, and decoys (CCD). To remain viable, all units must apply CCD to personnel and equipment. Ignoring a threat’s ability to detect friendly operations on the battlefield is shortsighted and dangerous. Friendly units enhance their survivability capabilities if they are well versed in CCD principles and techniques.

 

CCD is equal in importance to marksmanship, maneuver, and mission. It is an integral part of a soldier’s duty. CCD encompasses individual and unit efforts such as movement, light, and noise discipline; litter control; dispersal; and deception operations. Each soldier’s actions must contribute to the unit’s overall CCD posture to maximize effectiveness.

 

Increased survivability is the goal of a CCD plan. A unit commander must encourage each soldier to think of survivability and CCD as synonymous terms. Training soldiers to recognize this correlation instills a greater appreciation of CCD values.

 

A metric conversion chart is provided in Appendix A.

 

The proponent of this publication is HQ TRADOC. Send comments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) directly to Commandant, United States Army Engineer School (USAES), ATTN: ATSE-DOT-DD, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri 65473-6650.

 

This publication implements Standardization Agreement (STANAG) 2931, Orders for the Camouflage of the Red Cross and Red Crescent on Land in Tactical Operations.

 

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

 

APPENDI

CAMOUFLAGE REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES

X C.

Lightweight Camouflage Screen System

 

Supplemental Camouflage

 

Vehicle Camouflage

 

Training


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